Treadmill Training: Welcome to the Machine

“I have a punishing workout regimen. Every day I do three minutes on a treadmill, then I lie down, drink a glass of vodka, and smoke a cigarette.” –Actor Anthony Hopkins

I steered clear of the treadmill during my early running career. They weren’t necessary—an apparatus reserved for yuppies and gym rats. I was a tough ultrarunner who ran outside no matter what; the worse the conditions the better. Years later, following a series of eye-opening events, my opinion softened and I discovered treadmills can be employed as a useful training tool.

An Injury Management Tool

After a tough summer of running and racing in 2010, I developed incapacitating glute and hamstring pain that rendered me unable to run hard or far. Eager to solve the issues, I turned to a running-form specialist and then a treadmill to heal my wounded leg.

“Optimal form will decrease injury rates and increase running efficiency,” says Jeff Waldberg, who is a physical therapist with a master’s in orthopedic manual therapy and is the owner of Los Angeles, California-based Ortho Pro Physical Therapy and The Runner’s Clinic. “You become a faster runner by eliminating faults like unnecessary vertical motion, heel striking, and improper arm swing. By decreasing these uneconomical movements, you decrease muscular effort and lessen the load on the tissues and joints doing the work.”

In order to uncover the problems creating the hitch in my stride, Jeff filmed me running on his treadmill in two sessions spaced a year apart. Have a look at my spring 2011 treadmill evaluation and here’s one from a year later in 2012.

Jeff identified the easiest home remedy for fixing my form. I needed to increase my running cadence and land with my feet under my center of mass.

Cadence improvement wasn’t easy for me. I had to get the hang of it. During the initial process of retraining my neuromuscular system, previously unused muscles got sore and I had to slow down and shorten my stride in order to increase my cadence. I found this difficult on uneven surfaces and hilly terrain. So, for several weeks, I almost exclusively used a treadmill to retrain and improve my cadence and form without the distractions of tripping, steep slopes, and/or navigating traffic. I saw drastic improvement, built confidence, and returned to the trails injury-free.

However, even today, I’m tempted to modify proper form on technical and steep ground. But Waldberg advises, “Do not alter your cadence. Keep your cadence fixed whether you’re running uphill, downhill, or over tricky surfaces. This keeps you from fatiguing quickly, over-striding, obliterating your quads and knees, and losing control on hazardous surfaces.”

It’s hard to maintain these form cues on rugged terrain when fatigue sets in. So, when I begin slacking, I return to the treadmill to remind myself what proper form and cadence should feel like.

A Course Record

In the early 2000s, I met Coloradan Paul DeWitt (who now lives in Montana), head coach at DeWitt Coaching. His race resume includes wins at the Leadville Trail 100 Mile (twice), Vermont 100 Mile, San Juan Solstice 50 Mile, and Heartland 100 Mile. All impressive victories, but what still floors me most is his 2007 course record set at the low-key Pemberton Trail 50k in Fountain Hills, Arizona.

“While dealing with a shin injury in the fall and winter of 2006/2007, I wasn’t able to run at all for a month and was then limited to the treadmill for the next two months,” recalls DeWitt. “For that first month, I walked over 50 hours (roughly 90 minutes a day) on my treadmill at four miles/hour on an eight- to 12% grade.”

During his second month back from injury, his shin still wasn’t healed, but he could tolerate uphill treadmill running. DeWitt incorporated 30-minute tempo runs at 7:30/mile pace and 75-minute marathon-effort workouts at 7:45/mile pace at an 8% incline. Easy and long runs were accomplished at slower paces and 4% grades. Over the ensuing weeks DeWitt was able to gradually decrease the slopes and increase his treadmill speeds—allowing his shin to progressively adjust to the new training loads.

“While I knew I was in good shape for uphill running on a treadmill at altitude, I didn’t know how well that would transfer to Pemberton’s relatively fast, flat, sea-level trail course,” says DeWitt. “As it turned out, my legs were the limiting factor. It felt like I was practically sprinting the whole way. However, as far my fitness, I was right where I hoped to be.”

After training for less than three months on a treadmill for a trail ultra, Paul ran 3:11:55 for the 50k, a record that still stands 11 years later.

A World Record

When I learned that friend and fellow coach Jacob Puzey was lining up to break the 50-mile treadmill world record, I thought he’d finally gone off the deep end. In my opinion, and I’m sure many of you agree, spending five-plus hours on a treadmill at sub-6:00/mile pace seemed totally irrational. Puzey, who leads a team of coaches at Peak Run Performance, proved me wrong on December 1, 2016, at The Running Event trade show in Orlando, Florida, by setting a new world best of 4:57:45.

“I wondered for a long time how fast I could run if I eliminated all of the other variables,” says Puzey. “When things have clicked for me in the past, I felt quite capable, but more often than not something external like weather, terrain, illness, or outside stresses have impacted my performances. I just thought it would be fun to start the treadmill up with everything laid out before me with no other objective than to see how fast and how far I could go.”

Puzey’s no stranger to the treadmill. He lives in Alberta, Canada, and out of necessity and convenience covers many winter miles on one because snowfall and sub-freezing temperatures make running indoors prudent. However, unlike DeWitt, Puzey wasn’t relegated to uphill grades during his record attempt training cycle. “I did my most intense efforts and long runs on the treadmill to better acclimate to the surface and machine,” Puzey recalls. “On average, I was on the treadmill three to four times a week. Most runs were in the 60- to 90-minute range. I’d start easy, around eight miles/hour, and gradually increased the effort until I finished at 12 miles/hour. The goal was to get comfortable running 7:00/mile pace (or faster) as often as possible. My longest treadmill run leading up to the record attempt was 18 miles.”

Puzey’s world record underscores the notion that a treadmill can be effective for long and maximal efforts.

A Universal Solution

“I go to the gym and I try to run on the treadmill and I listen to music but it doesn’t motivate me enough. So, I’m going to get a recording of a pack of wolves gaining on me. People would be like, ‘Why is that guy crying on the treadmill over there?’ ‘I don’t know, but he’s been yelling, “help” for like 20 minutes. He’s getting a good workout.’” –Comedian Demetri Martin

In 2010, I began coaching a variety of runners from all over the globe. I determined quickly that the treadmill could be utilized as a comprehensive problem solver.

Logistical Problem: Living in a place that has only flat terrain but racing in the mountains.
Treadmill Solution: “We can’t all live in the mountains, but many runners enjoy hilly races,” says DeWitt. “Even if your races are pancake flat, you will still benefit from the strength you gain through hill training on a treadmill.” Many treadmill models offer 15% to 40% inclines, but lack a decline option. DeWitt suggests countering this by doing lower-body strength work immediately following a hard, uphill workout. We do not recommend raising the rear of the treadmill on boards or blocks to produce a downhill slope.

Logistical Problem: Erratic pacing and failure to find a groove.
Treadmill Solution: “Treadmills help runners find a good rhythm,” says Puzey. “They can consistently stay in that zone for a longer period of time than they might not otherwise on trails or roads. This ultimately results in a higher volume of quality.”

Logistical Problem: Running too hard on easy days.
Treadmill Solution: Keep your pace and effort honest on easy or recovery days by programming the treadmill to an appropriately relaxed speed.

Logistical Problem: My day is too busy and I don’t have time to run.
Treadmill Solution: “The treadmill can be a time saver, especially if one has children or an inconsistent work or travel schedule,” says Puzey. “I recommend the treadmill for those who aren’t able to train at the same time each day as a means of getting in the training whether at home or in a hotel or gym.” Squeeze in what you can on a treadmill when arriving late, leaving early, visiting unknown territory, or while the kiddos are napping.

Logistical Problem: I’m hurt.
Treadmill Solution: As described above, use the machine to assist with gait retraining or utilize steep treadmill inclines for hiking or running when returning to fitness. If available, anti-gravity treadmills (e.g., AlterG), which lessen body weight and thus running impact, are also a good method for rehabilitation.

Logistical Problem: The weather isn’t cooperating.
Treadmill Solution: Rarely is race-day weather optimal. This is why DeWitt offers this advice, “I prefer to never skip a scheduled recovery run or long run due to bad weather. After all, you never know when you’ll be faced with adverse weather during a race. But when it comes to quality workouts, you want to be able to run hard and get the full value of the workout. That’s a good reason to use the treadmill.” Moreover, treadmill spaces can be modified to prepare an athlete for heat and/or humid race conditions when the outdoor environment is too tame.

Logistical Problem: It’s unsafe outdoors.
Treadmill Solution: If conditions outside are unsafe due to poor air quality, high heat indexes, lack of streetlights, snow, ice, or the like, fire up the treadmill to get your workout in.

Logistical Problem: I’m unsure of my running capabilities.
Treadmill Solution: “The treadmill can break our preconceived limits of pace,” explains Puzey. “For example, by increasing the pace toward the end of a treadmill run, we can find ourselves running much faster and sustaining the effort for much longer than we initially set out to do. This teaches us that we’re more capable than we allow ourselves to believe. If anything, seeing faster paces can prepare our mind not to freak out if/when a similar split appears on race day.” 

Our Favorite Treadmill Workouts

Torrence’s Easy Run: My favorite treadmill workout consists of an easy 60 minutes paired with an action-packed Netflix movie to prepare me for a hard workout the following day. Running easy on the treadmill keeps my heart rate low, effort easy, and allows me to focus on proper form and comfortable breathing.

DeWitt’s Progression Run: “This is my all-time favorite workout to do on the treadmill because it is much harder to do accurately outside. It also incorporates a long warm-up which we often skip.” Start the treadmill at 15 seconds/mile slower than normal easy pace for the first five minutes. Then every two minutes speed up one ‘click’ (which equates to 0.1 miles/hour). Continue this progression until you’re unable to finish a full two-minute segment. Allow time for an easy cool down after your progression. Hill Version: Start at 0% incline, but keep the pace the same (normal easy pace). Instead of increasing speed, raise the incline by 1% every two minutes. Compared to the flat version, you’ll max out much quicker, so lower the grade back to 0% and start the progression all over again. Try two or three progressions. Again, finish with an easy, flat cool down.

Puzey’s Speed Play: “If I’m training for a race that will require a bit more turnover or heat training—a road marathon or faster ultra—I’ll do intense efforts on the treadmill.” Warm up for 15 to 20 minutes. Do four to six 20-second strides to prime the legs. Then, run for 30 to 60 minutes incorporating random one- to five-minute surges at 5k to 10k race effort. Recover by jogging for the same amount of time as the repeat you just ran. Cool down by jogging for 15 to 20 minutes. If the goal race course is rolling, adjust the treadmill’s settings to incorporate random inclines.

Overcoming Treadmill Obstacles

“As soon as I wake up, I pay homage to the Buddha, and I try to prepare my mind to be more altruistic, more compassionate during the day to come so I can be of benefit to beings. Then I do physical exercise—I walk on a treadmill.” –the spiritual leader Dalai Lama

The treadmill isn’t for everyone. In this online survey, several runners described the device as “awful,” “soul-sucking,” and “fast food.” Let’s face it; it’s unnatural to run straight ahead on a monotonous surface that’s forever spinning toward you at unwavering speeds with every foot strike being the same as the last. If you use the treadmill on a consistent basis, consider these tips to enhance your experience:

  1. Set the treadmill at a 1% incline to counteract the lack of wind resistance created when running outdoors.
  2. Alter slope and speed throughout the workout. You can do this manually or some treadmills come with the ability to pre-program these variables.
  3. Unless you’re trying to achieve hot and humid, use a large box fan to mimic outdoor air movement and assist with evaporative cooling.
  4. Explore the use of non-motorized treadmills, like the Woodway Curve, in order to save money and energy and work harder.
  5. Tune in to a favorite podcast, crank your favorite music, or watch a movie.
  6. Consider going social with supported treadmill programs like Zwift and Peloton.
  7. Use a treadmill pace conversion table to determine equivalent efforts relative to pace and slope.
  8. Add ancillary training to your routine. By strengthening muscles used in lateral movements (which you don’t do on a treadmill), you’ll be less likely to wind up injured. Incorporate resisted monster walks, lunges in all planes, and side-lying leg lifts.

Most people prefer to run outside. However, when the realities of life are weighing you down, the treadmill will, at the very least, keep you moving.

Call for Comments (from Meghan)

  • Share your treadmill-running hacks! How do you keep it interesting and fresh with entertainment or workout variation?
  • What role does treadmill running have in making sure you get your training in during bad weather, unsafe conditions, and complicated/full life logistics?
  • Is there anything about outdoor running that you find can’t be properly replicated on a treadmill?

Photo courtesy of Jacob Puzey.

There are 23 comments

  1. Amy McDowell

    I love the treadmill because I love to read on it (using my iPad and the Kindle app). I read 26 books last year and almost all of that reading time was treadmill time. I also do find that it’s easier to get a run in on the treadmill on a busy day since I won’t have to worry about waiting for stoplights or driving to a certain location. Just get to the gym, change and go. As a woman, I also struggle with running alone in the winter when it’s dark so soon after work. I’ve had too many close calls with cars not seeing me and so sometimes the treadmill is a less stressful option.

  2. Henry Bickerstaff

    I understand the 1% incline to compensate for the lack of wind resistance. However, how do you compensate for the lack of cooling you would get from the same wind which keeps you from over heating on the run?

    1. Ian Torrence

      Hi Henry!
      I suggest using a large standing or box fan. I sweat a lot when I run and a fan placed directly in front of the treadmill helps. Some gyms may have this readily available, others may not. My treadmill is in the my non-climate controlled garage—in the winter it’s cold and in the summer it’s hot—but I use a fan in all seasons to create that air movement. It’s much less suffocating. Thanks!

  3. Jackie

    Last year I ran on the treadmill twice. This year, I ran outside less than 5 times between December 21st and today. The weather has been challenging (wind, ice and the polar vortex) but I have found that dark + cold is a very challenging combination. Since I run in the morning, I was skipping more and more runs. A light bulb turned on and I freed myself to embrace the ‘mill. At least I am getting my run on. And I will return to the outdoors once the sun begins to rise earlier because I have dogs that cannot run on the treadmill!

  4. Ivan

    There is a science-based treadmill conversion formula published in Minetti et al, “Energy cost of walking and running at extreme uphill and downhill slopes”, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 93, 2002, pp. 1039-1046 ( They studied energy cost of running and walking as a function of slope. They expressed results as a polynomial dependence which for small slopes (<15%) can be approximated with linear function, where 1% of incline is equivalent to ~6.25% of energy cost increase. That is, if you run 10 min/mile on 8% incline, your effort is 50% harder (equivalent to 6:40 min/mile "flat" running) and if you run the same pace on 15% incline, your effort doubles (equivalent to 5:00 min/mile "flat" running).

  5. John Vanderpot

    The back story on how/why these things were invented never helped their cause, in my case, but after 3 days of biblical rains I’m both working on my ark and giving them a 2nd thought…

  6. JD

    I worked with Paul a couple of years. The TM workouts were some of my favorites. Introducing variety was key and the ability to work different “systems” was great. I still do these today with the incline progression being a favorite.

  7. Andy M

    Am I the only one who has suffered knee injury from running on the treadmill? Years ago after a speedy workout my knee was so tweaked I had to stop running for several months. More recently a short and slow slog on the mill — the first in a couple years — yielded the same result. My knee still hurts. I feel like there’s some kind of torque or unnatural force that the “pulling” of the mill exerts on my knees. Never happens on the trail, no matter how many miles. Anyone else experience this? You know you’re nobody’s fool …

    1. Brandon


      You’re not alone. I deal with knee pain on a consistent basis and the tread mill brings out more pain for me than any other type of run (this includes road and trail). I can only hypothesize that since a treadmill is so flat/consistent, it demands better running form. Personally, I think road and trails may accommodate the flaws in my form due to their terrain variation- with trails being the most accommodating out of these three running types. This is all speculation so I would love for someone to chime in that may have a more technical explanation.

  8. Amy S

    Love this and love my treadmill! I primarily use it for uphill hiking/running, and often do at least a couple of “uphill hikes” (often mixed in with slow running) on it a week, trying to get in 4-6 miles at 15% keeping it under 15:00 pace average. I sometimes go steeper, and sometimes less, but get kind of stuck on 15%. I find that it seems to transition well to “real” uphill hikes in mountain ultras. Netflix is key to making me crave it, as I always have a show that is my treadmill/trainer show that I’m only allowed to watch on the treadmill/bike. It’s currently Gilmore Girls, and 160 episodes later, I’m finally into season 7 (the final one). I’m dreading the day when it’s over, but I’ll likely just restart at S1, Ep.1…

  9. Ripvanracer

    Please, please, I beg you, absolutely DO NOT use that hillrunner conversion chart for elevation. The mere premise that each subsequent % you raise the treadmill will be LESS difficult is laughable.

    Here is the best calculator I have found though it still underestimates effort when you get in the higher elevations. An easy heart rate check will verify that.

  10. Maaike

    Thank you Ian for this well written and interesting article! To add as reason to treadmill : working in a country where outside running is not an option due to insecurity. I am currently working in Iraq for Doctors without Borders and the treadmill has become a good and faithful friend for three runs per week. Never thought I would come to crave it :-)
    As a side note, running has been possible in other countries I would have thought it would not be, and I think fondly back to my sunrise runs in congo.

  11. Rich Myers

    Hi Ian, great article! I have been mixing in treadmill walks at 15% incline and speeds up to 4.0 into my training lately to gain an easy way to add hill training into my otherwise often flat desert running. I started around 10:00 and have worked up to 30:00, which is surprisely quite tough. I’ll usually start at slower speeds for a bit and then fast walk at 4.0, all at 15%. So, when DeWitt recalls walking workouts of 90 minutes at inclinces 8-12%, I now see how challenging those must have been. One thing, I did try running at 15%, 4.0 for awhile but I ended up with a very sore lower back in the morning. I’m in my 40s, so it might be partly age but I’m thinking I probably worked it too much too soon at that incline. Finally, awesome title, who doen’t love Floyd?!

    1. Ian Torrence

      And I laughed at your comment Michael, because you’re correct. They aren’t cheap! I was thinking of their “green” capacity. I had a single track mind and was only considering what they’d save on the electric bill. Thanks for reading and commenting!

  12. Jeremy

    It goes without saying, but treadmills are great when you need to be close to home/work/gym etc. Ie. if you’re expecting a phone call, kids are playing outside and/or napping, on call at work, uncertain time commitments etc. or even if injured or unsure how long you want to run for. Just step off when you have to and go about your day. So physically proximity to the starting point is a major advantage over running around outside (although I do prefer the latter).

  13. Roy

    This is a great article. I have always been a huge advocate for treadmill training and I know one consistent sub 2:30 marathoner who trains all winter, including regular 20-mile workouts.

    I would add a caveat. Not all of us can afford a treadmill, or even a gym membership. As an alumnus I can only afford drop-ins to my university gym the few times a month I use a treadmill (I work for a non-profit). If your city has community centers these may be an option.

    My favourite workout is speed + hills. I run a fast two miles at increasingly fast pace beginning with a tiny 2% incline (ending in a 5:30 half mile at 0% incline). Then I hit the highest possible incline and run as fast as I can for two minutes. I lower the incline 3% and increase the speed. I do this until I am running 8 miles an hour at whatever the incline I’m at that I can tolerate (and I have done this for at least 12 minutes), then one minute active recover and hydration, and then a progressively fast mile. I do the same hill workout again and one more fast mile. Then one slower recovery mile at 2% grade.

    This is a sick workout and it can easily be scaled for relative fitness. It kills an hour quite nicely.

  14. Raven

    Never ever underestimate the power of the mill. Alberto Salazar, Ingrid Kristianson trained almost exclusively on this hamster machine and were world beaters. Ive broken three hrs using the mill. The only problem is have is the excessive sweating where you would swear i got out of a shower. The boresom is a killer but i have to keep changing the tunes. The best investment ever as it keeps me breezing through lockdown.

  15. Larry

    I have some pretty big mountain races coming up later this summer/fall (hopefully!) and I live in Pocomoke, Maryland (Pancake flat!). With the “Stay at Home” restrictions, I’m not going to be going out to the mountains every 4-6 weeks which I typically would do in order to prepare myself. I have a treadmill for the “ups” but without a decline setting. I see where it’s not recommended in this article to put a treadmill on blocks to simulate a decline setting but rather to do lower body strength workouts after a hard uphill workout, could you explain why the blocks aren’t recommended? TY!

    1. Ian Torrence

      Hi Larry,

      Setting a treadmill on blocks is unsafe for a number of reasons. I’m sure the manufacturer wouldn’t recommend you doing this—it probably puts a lot of wear and tear on equipment that wasn’t designed for such use. I’ve also read about some horror stories of treadmills vibrating off the blocks they were on while in use. Be safe out there!

      Thanks for reading!

  16. Helen Slater

    Can you do the bleep test on a treadmill, if so, how?…. and is it difficult!
    I need to reach 5.4 for the prison service…

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