Seven Stride Cues To Increase Trail And Ultra Running Efficiency

Stay the CourseIt is refreshing to see an increasing number of runners and coaches in the trail and ultrarunning niche emphasize the importance of running-stride efficiency. More runners and coaches recognize that how we run not only impacts how we feel, but also how we perform.

A chief strategy to enhance running efficiency is hip utilization. This has been on my professional radar for several years, since being exposed to the research of Dr. Chris Powers, one of the premier running-mechanics and injury researchers in the United States. His body of work indicates that hip utilization–namely of loading and using the gluteal muscles, the prime movers of the hip joint–results in enhanced running economy and decreased injury risk. Indeed, the gluteus maximus muscle (the main butt muscle) is the largest and most powerful muscle in the body. But efficiently and powerfully using it to its full ability is often easier said than done.

Indeed, both personally and professionally, enhanced hip-muscle engagement has led to faster running with less problems, both in training and racing. Hip loading spares the overuse of every muscle group below the hips, including the quadriceps, hamstrings, and calves–all muscles prone to overuse and cramping in trail and ultrarunning training and racing.

Hip loading and use is the gold standard of strong, efficient running. But it’s not easy. As Dr. Powers likes to say, “the hip is a redundant system,” meaning it is very easy to compensate into an inefficient strategy. Thankfully, for every compensation, there are nearly the same number of mid-run strategies to help you use your hips while running. In the rest of this article, we discuss what are in my opinion, the best seven strategies for properly engaging your hips and running as efficiently as you can. See also the video at the end of the article in which I show these strategies in action.

1. Lean Forward

What muscles do the propulsive work while running comes down to orientation and alignment: how the body accepts force from the ground and how it creates force from within. Without going too deeply into the physics (namely torques and force vectors), the ideal athletic alignment for optimal hip loading is this: chest over knees, knees at or behind the toes.

As discussed in this article about hip loading, I consider this the ‘universal athletic position.’ In this alignment, the body is poised to maximize both stability (in the trunk and hips) and hip-centric power generation. As such, you see it across all sports, from the football three-point stance all the way to the distance-running forward lean.

Simply put, a forward lean is one that places the chest over the knees. And while one must also keep the knees from over-flexing (see below), simply leaning forward goes a very long way to placing the force vector into the hip joint.

However, it also facilitates propulsion in two other ways:

  • Orienting the body’s momentum in a
  • Orienting the pelvis so that the hip can push behind


Efficient forward engagement with running often feels like falling forward. As a visual, be sure that during any given stride while you are leaning forward, you can see your stance foot–all five toes–land beneath you, simply by looking down at your feet.

2. Arch Your Back

While a trunk lean establishes forward orientation, trunk extension enhances alignment. As with the lean, an extended trunk helps position the pelvis and hips to push behind.

But more importantly, spinal extension creates extra hip power by activating a muscle-connective tissue system called the thoracolumbar fascia. This system–a series of criss-cross connective tissues that run diagonally from one shoulder blade to the opposite hip and pelvis–is a powerful energy-storing and generating system that combines arm and leg power, channeling the energy of the arm swing into the hip push-off on the opposite side. Think of it as a powerful, contracting bungee system on our backsides.

However, this system can only function efficiently with a neutral, moderately arched spine; slumping forward overstretches the thoracolumbar fascia, deactivating or otherwise weakening its power. A strong, neutral mid-back arch helps maintain this system, keeping power flowing from the arm and trunk into the legs.


Achieve and maintain a small-but-strong arch at the mid-back. Below the shoulder blades but above the low back is the thoracolumbar junction in the mid-back, where the thoracic spine/rib cage and lumbar/low back meet. Avoid an isolated low-back hyperextension, as this exaggerated arch will only isolate the movement down below, often causing back pain.

3. Pawback Pull

The pawback strategy, which involves a forceful pulling-through of the leg before and during footstrike previously outlined here–is a powerful way to activate the posterior hip extensors. A conscious action of ‘pulling’ creates a pre-stretch load to the glute max and hamstrings, which accentuates their extension power upon landing and pushoff.

Moreover, a pawback strategy also helps keep the leg ‘tall.’ Remember, ideal alignment is chest over knees, and knees behind the toes. A pawback pull is a powerful technique for keeping the leg mostly straight, avoiding excessive knee flexion, and keeping that force vector in the hip joint!

Lastly, a great side benefit to the pawback is a major decrease in over-stride landing potential, as the pawback helps orient footstrike directly beneath the body.


Try the drills and exercises outlined in this video as well as the Straight Leg Pull drill. Then, when running, aim to pull the foot and leg beneath you as you land, as if you’re trying to create a cyclical, bike-wheel-type action with your legs.

4. Knees Out

This is a curious, but powerful stride cue. As a professional (and runner), I fought the notion of this cue: awkwardly ‘running bowlegged’ as a sort of way to avoid the troublesome ‘knee buckling in.’

But in practicing this technique and studying the actions of the gluteal muscles, the knee-out strategy became more than simple knee alignment. In short, a major complementary action of the glute max muscle is to externally (outward) rotate the hip, which is paired to maximal hip extension. So, in executing a knee-out strategy, this outward rotation increases the overall activation of the glute max! It may feel funny, but you’ll soon discover (as I and many clients have) that you’ll get a huge boost in speed and endurance.


The knee-out cue should feel like a bowlegged, outward rotation of the knee, where you endeavor to keep the knee out while the feet remain directly beneath you. One way to practice this is to run directly on the lane line of a track. Try to keep your knees outside of the line, while the feet land directly on it.

5. Lift the Knees

This may be the simplest yet somewhat indirect way to improve hip extension. Lifting and driving the knee enacts Newton’s third law of motion, which states that, “for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.” A strong upward and forward knee drive creates the reciprocal response of a powerful hip extension push-off on the other leg.

A more nuanced examination finds that pelvic elevation facilitates this upward knee drive, which creates a reciprocal pelvic elevation on the stance/push-off leg. This is a powerful, efficient, core-driven running pattern that is the gold standard of running efficiency.


It may seem complicated, but the strategy is simple: lift your knees (or, if you will, drive your whole leg) upward and forward, which will improve hip push-off on the opposite leg.

6. Push Off with Your Feet

As outlined previously, “strong strides start [and end] at the foot.” A strong lower leg and foot–at contact, through mid-stance, and during push-off–helps keep the hip engaged, leading to a larger-magnitude and more powerful hip extension. Conversely, a weak foot causes the whole system to buckle under itself: excess flexion at the ankle and knee essentially shuts down the gluteal muscles, forcing hamstrings, quads, and calves to over work during push-off. (Ironically, the calves will have to work double time for having not done their job during landing and stance.)


First, practice the Ankling drill, outlined in the previously mentioned ‘elite-feet’ article, which is an exaggeration of a strong foot and ankle push-off. Then, with running, ‘finish’ the stride with a strong push-off behind, at the very end of the stride.

7. Swing the Arms

Lastly, we return to the upper body. Arm swing serves a triple function in running economy:

  • Force generation — where a rearward-swinging arm aids in both same-sided upward/forward drive and opposite-sided push-off
  • An efficiency multiplier — enhancing both tail-end push-off and efficient pulling under of the foot upon landing
  • Balance — helping to counter forces entering the body from the legs

For the former, the arms, via the scapula and surrounding muscles, once again access the thoracolumbar fascia to channel more push-off power to the opposite hip.


Use a small-but-strong arm swing, driving the elbow (and with it, the shoulder blade) behind and downward.


People gravitate to trail and ultrarunning for many reasons, but among them, we are attracted to the notion that we can use the brain to succeed as well as the body. How we move our bodies can be as strong and useful of a brain strategy as any other. I hope you can put these strategies to good use in your next running adventure.

Call for Comments (from Meghan)

  • Which of these strategies speaks to you the most? As in, when you try them, which strategy generates a noticeable improvement in the efficiency of your running stride?
  • What part of your body do you think is the weakest? And, can you feel or notice that this weakness trickles along the kinetic chain into other parts of your body?

Joe Uhan

is a physical therapist, coach, and ultrarunner in Eugene, Oregon. He is a Minnesota native and has been a competitive runner for over 20 years. He has a Master's Degree in Kinesiology, a Doctorate in Physical Therapy, and is a USATF Level II Certified Coach. Joe ran his first ultra at Autumn Leaves 50 Mile in October 2010, was 4th place at the 2015 USATF 100K Trail Championships (and 3rd in 2012), second at the 2014 Waldo 100K, and finished M9 at the 2012 Western States 100. Joe owns and operates Uhan Performance Physiotherapy in Eugene, Oregon, and offers online coaching and running analysis at

There are 18 comments

  1. Jer

    It doesn’t sound much at all like Chi running. Just real science, hold the hooey. Chi would disagree with the foot mechanics especially. Thank you so much Joe for your continued excellence in these form and running health articles.

  2. Dan

    The physics of lean forward is subtle. Danny Dreyer gets it wrong, making a perpetual motion argument, as if gravity is going to give you a forward force which pulls you along in steady-state. The center of mass, on average, is over the force-weighted time-averaged foot position. That’s balance of forces, Newton’s laws, and there’s nothing that can be done about it. So if you lean forward you may think you’re getting some magic free propulsive force from that, but force causes acceleration, not steady-state speed (it’s different if there’s strong wind resistance). It will land you flat on your face unless you put a foot ahead of center of mass to apply counter-torque which aborts it. That said, it’s plausible a forward lean results in better kinetics, but it’s not so trivial.

      1. Dave

        No difference on downhills. If your average center-of-gravity is forward of your average foot position, you will topple onto your nose whether you are going up, down, or flat. ** Note that this ignores the small effect of wind resistance whereby a slight forward lean (causing a forward rotation of your body position) is countered by an aerodynamic force (causing a backward rotation of your body position).

        To be clear, you can lean forward, but ultimately this needs to be countered by a foot landing further forward as well. If you can do this (lengthen your stride) without decreasing cadence, you will be, by definition, running faster. This is not because of some magical gravity assist, but rather because you are working harder! As a matter of fact, tangential to the running surface, you will actually be leaning backwards on a downhill (e.g. tip a picture of you running downhill back so that the road/trail looks flat).

        That being said, a strong forward lean on a downhill in combination with a well placed slip-and-slide will indeed improve your downhill performance.

  3. Buzz

    That was super informative, thanks ! Megan, I’ve been searching for an article that was I think on iRunFar a few months ago breaking down the components of long ultras (cardio endurance, joint strength, muscle endurance, hydration, and I forget a few). Any chance you have a link to that ? I can’t seem to find it.

    1. Meghan Hicks

      Buzz, I think this article,, by Joe might be the one you are looking for on putting all the pieces (mental and physical) together to race an ultra? If so, I recommend you also take a look back to the other two articles Joe wrote in that three-article series that talk about process-oriented preparations and training. Collectively, I think the series presents a great skeleton for approaching trail and ultra running and racing in a sustainable way.

  4. Max

    Really interesting, thanks a lot! My main question is, how do you practice all that, and how do you know whether your engaging the right muscle groups with the right amount? I feel like the main risk is trying to change your stride and develop bad habits thinking you’re doing it right. Would you go simply by feel, as in “these muscles should feel more tired than those” or “you should feel less tired running the same route, same pace, with this improved stride”? Or do you need to record yourself on a treadmill and analyze the footage?

  5. Doug K

    about halfway through this, I realized I had forgotten how to run..

    A centipede was happy – quite!
    Until a toad in fun
    Said, “Pray, which leg moves after which?”
    This raised her doubts to such a pitch,
    She fell exhausted in the ditch
    Not knowing how to run.

  6. Vic @ Dinocracy

    I definitely heard about the leaning forward thing before – I believe that’s a method I saw in a book – some famous guy, sounded like a Russian name or something like that. Anyway, great reading, thanks for sharing. Always something to improve. If only my knee pain goes away soon so I can be back on running. Cheers! Vic

  7. Nathan

    I get it that this describes a lot of the mechanics of an efficient running stride, but unless there’s a scientific study showing that runners trying to consciously enact these mechanics improves those runners’ efficiency, I’m not convinced it’s a good idea to try to artificially manipulate your running mechanics with these.

    For each runner there will be an ideal forward lean, an ideal back arch, an ideal knee lift height, etc. But I don’t currently know if I run with more, or less of those than I should. I would worry that if I tried to change one of those I’d be more likely to go too far in the wrong direction than the right one.

    Here’s a really good article that goes over the actual research about the best way to improve running stride:

    Here’s another that talks about some studies too:

    All the high-quality research-based advice I’ve read suggests a good training plan is the way to do it. Train to run faster with strides, fast intervals, tempo run intervals, etc., and training at faster speeds will force your body to learn more efficient running techniques.

    1. Luke

      I really resonate with your hesitations in adapting these cues without really studying current form. There’s a very important difference between proper running form/mechanics and the cues needed to move you towards better form. Depending on where you are vs where you need to be the cues might be opposite relative to a cue someone else needs, or may appear to contradict the description of the desired end state. There is no one size fits all set of cues.

      1. Jer

        Some are universal. Next downhill you run, lean forward and work your arms faster. I guarantee your pace drops very fast. The opposite of this cue is to lean back and apply the brakes.

  8. Moderation

    Fantastic summary article – captures a bunch of good Joe Uhan advice in one compact package. For me personally, the “knees out” cue is incredibly powerful. Every time I turn my mind to it I feel myself running faster without additional perceived effort.

    1. Max

      “I feel myself running faster without additional perceived effort”.
      I think that’s the interesting part and one of Nathan’s links discusses it. That basically you will not perceive additional effort but still be less efficient. So it seems you can’t really trust how you feel to know if you’re actually doing it better. That makes it tricky when you want to try these cues.

  9. Alex

    There’s a great deal of literature and coaching experience around perceived exertion see: For an experienced runner (I’ve been doing it since high school, 35 years ago) most coaches will suggest it’s as effective as HRM for monitoring training effort. For an experienced runner, it’s quite clear – when you focus on cues that improve your form, you will run faster without working harder – this is really night and day. The specific cues that help each runner may vary. For example, focusing on arm swing or knee lift doesn’t help me at all – these were drilled into my head 35 years ago by my high school cross country coach, and they are not an area where I have a deficit. Lean forward and knees apart, however, are areas where my form can be improved by reminding myself to do these things.

    Try these cues – not all of them will help, but I bet some will!

  10. Giridar Gajapathy

    Great tips in one package. I bet everyone can agree is the force developed from hip takes you longer and farther for the same perceived effort than running with your legs. In this 21st century being desk jockeys dormant the hip muscles and your sciatic gets fryed resulting in hip inactivation. Excellent article explaining, physics, linear forces, kinematics or kinesolgy, and body as a connected machine. The one question I have for Joe is looking at various professional runners in action, video is they all have a very very loose shoulder and the upper back from neck is so relaxed. A very stiff upper body from neck and traps completely throws your running mechanics

  11. GMack

    I believe the only time to consciously lean forward running is when accelerating (or posing for a running magazine cover).

    Otherwise, do as elite runners who compete at various distances do, who are basically upright:

    Usain Bolt (and friends)

    Mo Farah

    Kenenisa Bekele (making a marathon wr)

    Francois D’Haene and Dylan Bowman on a slight downhill


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